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How do you understand it? What is your experience of writing at the university? Can you briefly describe the process of writing your course or diploma paper? What meanings does the word "rhetoric " have? Can you explain in your own words why writing is addressed in the text as a "sociocognitive activity"? Why "social, " "cognitive, " "activity"? Do you see any compromise between of the thought"? Place a check mark V before the five most important of them in your opinion for a writer of academic texts.
Discuss your preferences with a partner or in a small group and support them with appropriate arguments. Use correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Write in an objective, neutral manner. Accurately use the terminology of your discipline. Ensure that your language is rich enough. Write in an academic style, avoid colloquial language, jargon, and slang.
Arrange your ideas in a strict logical order.
Pay special attention to the introduction of your text. Incorporate visual support tables, diagrams, graphs for your ideas. Cite leading papers in your field.
Think about the general presentation chapters, subchapters, paragraphs, etc. Pay special attention to the conclusion of your text. Such investigations have focused on the comparison of English and other languages, usually with a practical aim: For example, writing specialists Joel Bloch and Lan Chi came to a conclusion that Chinese authors prefer indirect criticism, while English writers usually do not hide their attitudes.
According to Finnish linguist Anna Mauranen , Finns pay less attention to the general organization and structure of their texts than Anglo-Americans.
As another study has shown Yakhontova, a , Ukrainian authors, in contrast to their Anglo-American counterparts, tend to avoid self-advertising, "eye-catching" features in their research papers. However, the writing style of one language and culture is neither better nor worse than the writing style of another language and culture: Below you will find a list of ten features characteristic of academic writing. According to several findings, five of them are relatively prominent in Anglo-American research texts.
Try to find these features in the list judging from your own experience that you might gain while reading English papers in your field. Impersonal style of writing i. Intensive use of logical connectors words like "therefore" or "however". Heavy load of terminology and specialized jargon. High degree of formal text structuring i. Tendency to cite and to include into the lists of references the most recent publications in the field.
Frequent occurrence of the phrases which provide reference to the text itself e. Use of long sentences with complicated grammar. Strong emphasis on generalizations and highly theoretical issues. Frequent use of footnotes and long remarks in parentheses. Tendency to follow a certain pattern of textual organization e.
Consider the three pairs of research paper titles given below. Which of the titles in each pair could, in your opinion, be written by an English or an American professor, and which—by their Ukrainian colleague?
Mastering Academic Writing in Foreign Languages: Problems, Solutions, and Costs 3. To Teach or not to Teach? Then, divide them into those which, in your opinion, are useful for Ukrainian writers, and those which do not seem to be useful. Be ready to supply arguments in favor of your choices. Simply translating your texts into English yourself or with the help of computer programs. Paying attention to the organization and language of English papers in the leading journals in your discipline.
Consulting with native speakers merely because they are native speakers. Learning how the key parts of the academic text are typically organized and structured.
Relying on assistance of your colleagues working or studying in your discipline —native speakers of English. Being always eager to rewrite and revise believing that the best way of mastering or improving writing and not only in English is to write as much as possible. Thinking that academic writing in English or in any other foreign language is a matter of synthesizing a whole from literature in the field and data sources.
Having a Ukrainian colleague or supervisor who has already had experience of successful academic writing in English and is able to give you a good piece of advice.
Studying English writing manuals or textbooks and following their recommendations. You must have already met this word, which originally came from French and has the meaning of "a kind of.
At the same time, genre may also be defined as a type of a written or oral text with a recognizable set of relatively stable features. Genres may also be treated as textual realizations of discourse. Discourse is a way of speaking or writing of different social professional, cultural institutions e. Write three names of oral and three names of written academic genres you met during the five years of your university studies. Now write three names of any genres you expect to encounter in your research activity.
Match the names of the English academic genres in the left column with their definitions descriptions in the right column. Translate the names of the genres into Ukrainian. Do you see any English-Ukrainian mismatches?
Summary 1. An article that critically examines a new book or any other piece of writing. Abstract 2. A research project proposed for funding. Review 3. A short account of a research paper placed before it. Conference abstract 4.
A relatively short piece of research usually published in a journal or a volume. Research paper 5. A shortened version of a text aimed at giving the most important information or ideas of the text. A short account of a conference paper. Grant proposal 24 Unit 3 English Academic Style and Language This Unit will help you to master important linguistic features of English academic discourse and to review some general language points essential for writing in English.
Formal Style T h e style of English academic writing is formal. Its main characteristics are the absence of conversational features and the use of an appropriate a c a d e m i c vocabulary. D e v e l o p i n g a c o m m a n d of f o r m a l style is extremely i m p o r t a n t for nonnative speakers wishing to master the conventions of English academic discourse.
Compare four pairs of sentences. It will not be difficult for you to decide which are written in formal style and which in informal. What features of formality or informality can you find in the sentences?
Thanks a lot for the invitation, hut I'm afraid I can't come. Thank you very much for your kind invitation. I regret it will not be possible for me to come. I really can't comment on the findings of this paper. I am not currently in a position to provide any comments on the findings of this paper.
Will you write me back as soon as possible? I am waiting for your reply. I would greatly appreciate hearing from you at your earliest convenience. With best wishes, Alex. I should be pleased to provide any further details you request. Sincerely yours, Alex Brown. Interjections and hesitation fillers i. Well, we will n o w consider the influence of sex h o r m o n e s on stress response.
We will n o w consider the influence of sex h o r m o n e s on stress response. Addressing the reader directly. You can see the data in Table 3. T h e data can be seen in Table 3. Phrasal verbs although not always.
English for Socializing
Researchers have found out that m a n y m e n t a l illnesses are based on molecular defects. Researchers have discovered that m a n y m e n t a l illnesses are based on molecular defects. Direct questions although not always. W h a t can be d o n e to improve the state of o u r economy? We n o w need to consider w h a t can be d o n e to improve the state of o u r economy. Adverbs in initial or final positions the middle position is preferable.
T h i s w o r k relies on previous research heavily. T h i s w o r k heavily relies on previous research. Inappropriate negative forms. Short forms of the words or slang. This booklet describes the requirements a n d content of the university graduation exams. This booklet describes the requirements a n d content of the university graduation examinations. Figures at the beginning of the sentence.
Reduce the Ninety-seven p e o p l e visited t h e m u s e u m last week. The investigation of the origin of the Universe will go on.
What are the effects of pollution on the population of birds in large urban areas? Several assumptions can be made. You can clearly see the difference between these two sets of data. The experiment will be over in three months. We can't tell whether electricity is some peculiar kind of substance or motion of ordinary matter.
This approach does not promise many innovations. Our new research assistant is a nice guy. Each statement in a high-level programming language is translated into many machine-code instructions generally. It is, therefore, important to adopt an appropriate point of view, that is to choose or not to choose personal pronouns I or we for framing a piece of writing.
Traditionally, academic writing tends to avoid personal pronouns and shows preference toward impersonal style. At the same time, there is a tendency now to use an I-perspective in English academic writing, mostly in humanities.
Using I, however, may seem somewhat unusual or awkward to Ukrainian writers. It may thus be recommended, at least for beginners, to maintain impersonal style and to avoid the first person pronoun I. This does not mean, however, that I should never be used. Cautious Writing An important feature of English academic written discourse is a cautious manner of writing, that is the avoidance of too definite statements or conclusions.
The purpose of such a strategy is to be accurate and to protect the author from being criticized for possible errors or invalid claims. Cautious writing also allows for other opinions or points of view. The main linguistic ways of doing this are as follows. By using modal verbs. By using adjectives that express probability in all examples below the statements gradually weaken in strength. Dinosaurs died o u t d u e to sudden climatic changes. It is certain It is likely It is probable It is possible It is unlikely that dinosaurs died o u t due to sudden climatic changes.
By using a there is construction with the word possibility. There is a strong possibility a definite possibility a slight possibility t h a t dinosaurs died o u t d u e t o s u d d e n climatic changes. By using adverbs that express certainty and probability. Definitely, Undoubtedly, Probably, Possibly, Presumably, d i n o s a u r s died o u t d u e to s u d d e n climatic changes.
Social scientists seem to o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. Social scientists appear to o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. Social scientists tend to o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. By using quantity words. A majority of social scientists o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values.
A large number of social scientists o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. Social scientists of many countries o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. Some social scientists o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. A few social scientists o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values.
By using statements of shared knowledge, assumptions, and beliefs. It is generally agreed It is widely accepted It is now generally recognized t h a t dinosaurs died o u t d u e t o s u d d e n climatic changes.
Underline the instances of a cautious style of writing that you will be able to find in the text below some of them will slightly differ from those listed above. Native American Cultures The America that greeted the first Europeans was far from an empty wilderness. It is now thought that as many people lived in the Western Hemisphere as in Western Europe at that time—about 40 million.
Estimates of the number of Native Americans living in what is now the United States at the onset of European colonization range from two to 18 million, with most historians tending toward the lower figure. What is certain is the devastating effect that European disease had on the indigenous population practically from the time of initial contact. Smallpox, in particular, is thought to have been a much more direct cause of the decline in Indian population in the s than the numerous wars with European settlers.
Indian customs and culture at the time were extraordinarily diverse, as could be expected, given the expanse of the land and the many different environments to which they had adapted.
Some generalizations, however, are possible. Most tribes, particularly in the wooded eastern region and the Midwest, combined aspects of hunting, gathering and the cultivation of maize and other products for their food supplies. In many cases, the women were responsible 30 English Academic Style and Language for farming and the distribution of food, while the men hunted and participated in war.
By all accounts, Indian society in North America was closely tied to the land. Indian life was essentially clan-oriented and communal, with children allowed more freedom and tolerance than was the European custom of the day. Although some North American tribes developed a type of hieroglyphics to preserve certain texts, Indian culture was primarily oral. Clearly, there was a good deal of trade among various groups and strong evidence exists that neighboring tribes maintained extensive and formal relations—both friendly and hostile.
Be careful to use appropriate choices for each situation. Supervision is a critical link between top managers and workers. The expansion of the Universe continues. Monetary policy is not effective. Diseases are the results of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors.
The most influential component of a computer is a central processing unit. Genetic differences in alcohol metabolism between American Indians and other races caused the death of a Navajo teenager. Errors are the indicators of the learners' stages in their foreign language development. Economists think that statistical methods have a profound impact on process involvement, production costs, quality, and competitive position.
A drop of nicotine kills the horse. Ecology is defined as a study of the relations of living things with their environment. Verbs English academic style makes use of formal verbs, often of Latin origin. In Ukrainian textbooks, such verbs are usually referred to as "general scientific verbs" Ukr.
Below are the most frequently used "scientific verbs " in the left column and the descriptions of their meanings in the right column arranged in groups often, alphabetically.
Check your knowledge of the verbs by matching them with the descriptions of their meanings. Memorize the words you do not know actively. You m a y also add to this list o t h e r "general scientific verbs" that y o u will c o m e across w h e n reading literature in your field.
Their knowledge and appropriate use is very important for successful academic writing in English. A The following sentences contain widespread academic collocations. However, one component—a noun in the majority of cases —has been omitted. Find the missing words in the list above the sentences and fill in the blanks.
Social and ideological crises usually give religions and beliefs. Ecologists lay light insights emphasis to non-traditional on the consequences of human utilization of natural resources. The data he has found will shed on theoretical assumptions. Advances in molecular biology may have for therapy. Recent research into mental illnesses has provided causes of schizophrenia.
The recent elections have shown that political forces managed to maintain the. The participants of the conference have raised many burning 8. The paper offers to Canada. For the purposes of this research, this theorem will be taken for. The tests of gene therapy have allowed medical scientists to draw about its possible risks and benefits. Practical consequences of the research lie outside the paper. When investigating the origin of different disease, researchers take into both hereditary anil environmental factors.
Traditionally, Ukrainian higher education importance on the development of wide erudition of students. The authors of the article recent research to show how the goal of learning English vocabulary can be integrated into speaking activities. Bohr, the outstanding Danish physicist, the foundations of a "liquid droplet" theory of nuclear phenomena.
Few facts the theory of the virus nature of cancer. In the history of science, some researchers the theories that already existed to include the new phenomena. He research into the use of optics.
Many scholars think that humankind overpopulation. Cloning of animals research. Intensive space exploration in the second half of the 20th century has essentially to our understanding of the Universe.
You may try to the paper to an international journal. Political and economic changes in Ukraine have of society for economists and lawyers. Choose a missing component and fill in the blanks again. There is a relationship between the attraction of the moon and sea tides. The key of the study suggests that high Cortisol level in an individual may cause the symptoms of depression.
In this paper, we show the results of computational simulation for a case of the thermal resistance function that will be further verified. Nowadays, ecological interpretation is becoming an of social sciences. The right of women to have abortions is a hotly many countries.
Discourse analysis is a relatively new area field of 8. The laboratory is a research. The theory of shells has been chosen as a this investigation. Philological research requires wide framework of knowledge in such related fields as history and philosophy.
The study has been undertaken with theoretical. To arrive at valid conclusions, sociologists must use only sources and data. Special advice: W h i l e reading the literature in your field, try to write out more collocations typical for your discipline and add them to the list.
They also improve the flow of writing, that is a s m o o t h m o v e m e n t f r o m one idea or piece of information in a text to the next.
Logical connectors are thus guideposts for readers that help t h e m to better follow the text. As transitional expressions show various kinds of logical relations, they may be grouped according to their meaning and function. Read the following passages. Which one is easier to read? Now look back at version B and answer the questions that follow.
A E-mail and electronic communications are not new. Large-scale use of computer-to-computer transfer of information was implemented by the United States military in the late 60s and early 70s—part of the superpower competition of the cold war and the arms race.
Recognizing that shared information among scientists and mathematicians was also of strategic value, the network was made accessible to scholars and researchers in universities and colleges around the world.
Mathematicians and scientists and their universities have been linked and electronically exchanging information over the Internet since the mid70s.
E-mail and Internet are too wonderful to remain in the hands of just a few academics or the military, and in the last few years, important developments in electronic communications have begun to affect the lives of all of us. The Post-industrial age is the information age, and the means to acquire, store, manipulate, and use information will lead to success ami power.
Electronic communications are global and the Internet has no borders. This technology creates many opportunities for cultural and linguistic exchange. B E-mail and electronic communications in general are not new. In fact, large-scale use of computer-to-computer transfer of information was implemented by the United States military in the late 60s and early 70s—part of the superpower competition of the cold war and the arms race.
Later, recognizing that shared information among scientists and mathematicians was also of strategic value, the network was made accessible to scholars and researchers in universities and colleges around the world.
Thus, mathematicians and scientists and their universities have been linked and electronically exchanging information over the Internet since the mids. However, e-mail and Internet are too wonderful to remain in the hands of just a few academics or the military, and in the last few years, important developments in electronic communications have begun to affect the lives of all of us. The Post-industrial age is the information age, and the means to acquire, store, manipulate, and use information will lead to success and power.
That is why electronic transfer of information is so important to education. Moreover, since electronic communications are global and the Internet has no borders, this technology creates many opportunities for cultural and linguistic exchange. Which expressions in the text show causal relationship? Which expression shows that more information will be added? Which expression indicates time? Which expression shows that the sentence will contradict something said earlier? Which expression introduces a conclusion?
Which expressions intensity the meanings of the sentences? As far as possible, group them into their functions according to Table 1. Several connectors may have more than one meaning, so they may need to go in more than one of the cells.
Use a dictionary if you need to check the meaning of a connector. Each cell contains one connector provided as an example for you. Box 1. Logical Connectors accordingly although as as a matter of fact as a result as far as as long as as to at the same time because of consequently conversely despite due to even though finally firstly for example for instance furthermore hence however in addition in brief in conclusion in contrast in fact in other words in spite of in this case likewise meanwhile moreover nevertheless nonetheless notwithstanding on the contrary on the other hand on the whole otherwise overall regarding similarly since that is i.
Functions of Logical Connectors Function Addition Cause and effect Comparison Concession Conclusion Contrast Enumeration Illustration Intensification Reformulation Relation Summation Time Connectors furthermore, because of, likewise, nevertheless, therefore, on the other hand, firstly, for example, as a matter of fact, in other words, regarding, overall, meanwhile.
Fill in the blanks with the logical connectors given before the text. You must have also met some of them while reading Ukrainian academic texts, where such expressions are easy to notice, because they are often written in the Roman alphabet. In English texts, such expressions rather than abbreviations are sometimes given in italics. Below are the lists of abbreviations and expressions that you may use while writing in English.
Table 2. Anno Domini in the year of our Lord a.
Latin Expressions Expression Meaning a fortiori by a more convincing argument a posteriori reasoning based on past experience a priori reasoning that precedes experience ab initio from the beginning ab ovo from the beginning acl hoc arranged for a particular purpose; not pre-arranged; informal ad infinitum without limit; forever liter ego one's other self bona fide genuine ly , sincere ly , in good faith de facto existing by fact, not by law or right de jure by right; according to law ego I; individual perception or experience of oneself errata list of errors, misprints, etc.
Although knowledge of foreign languages is practically important, it is also valuable per se. History knows several examples when countries were ruled by de facto kings. Chemical processes usually flow in vivo quicker than in laboratory conditions.
You may find Errata in the section "Announcements" of the journal. Every creator starts to work within a traditional system ideological, epistemological, literary, etc.
While some scholars argue that conceptual systems do not exist a priori, others think that social groups, within which individuals function, are determined by and interact with prior "systems. The studies have shown that this class of bacterial proteins also pumps toxins out of the cell interior Nguen et al. To elaborate a new decision, the committee gathered for an ad hoc meeting.
Per capita income is an important economic category. Minerals get their names from various sources; e. Knowledge of them is especially important for those who perform research in humanities and social sciences. The first tendency considered here is the so-called politically correct language. This tendency, characteristic mostly of American English, consists in the use of euphemisms mild, vague, and indirect words or phrases that soften accurate meanings in accordance with sociopolitical values.
Some examples of "politically correct" American English are given below. Blacks, N e g r o e s Afro-Americans; Indians N a t i v e Americans; c h e a t i n g in school a c a d e m i c dishonesty; foreign s t u d e n t s international students; poor marginalized; blind visually challenged; h a n d i c a p p e d o r crippled differently abled; mentally retarded d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y challenged; stupid intellectually disadvantaged; u n a b l e to deal w i t h technical appliances technologically challenged.
Discuss the above examples with your partner. What values political, ideological, and moral , in your opinion, underlie these euphemisms? The second tendency consists in the avoidance of unnecessary distinctions based on sex in language use.
These distinctions are called sexist language. The proper understanding of this important for the Western societies tendency may not be easy for Ukrainians and other speakers of East Slavic languages, in which grammar is strongly affected by the category of gender. The text in the task below will help you to better understand what sexist language is and how to avoid it when writing in English.
The use of generic terms such as mankind and man is now associated with sexism and avoided by most careful speakers and writers of English. The needs and conditions of the modern English-speaking world have steered English toward becoming the most effective and sensitive international medium of communication.
But, despite this openness and adaptability of the English language to new words, concepts, and usages, many speakers of English, male and female, The power relations within the English language are revealed in its gender biases, the majority of which rest on the traditional sexual division of labor and on the cultural assumption of male superiority.
Use of a gender-neutral form of English strives to correct these distorted assumptions by making apparent the full participation of both sexes in all spheres of life. One of the main arguments against male-centered English in its usage is that discrimination against women is promoted through sexist language.
In their essay, "One Small Step for Genkind," Miller and Swift offer several examples of sexism in language and the ways in which the English language reflects a sexist culture. According to the authors, sexist language is any language that expresses "stereotyped attitudes and expectations, or that assumes the inherent superiority of one sex over the other" The use of masculine pronouns for people in general, for example he in generalized usage, refers to either sex as described by Miller and Swift as an instance of a linguistic construction that "operates to keep women invisible" or secondary in status to men In recognition of the power of language to subjugate groups of people, most reputed dictionaries and guides to writing in English published in the last 10 years advise against the use of words or statements that suggest bias or prejudice toward any group.
More specialized books on style and composition 46 English Academic Style and Language such as the Modern Language Association's Handbook for Writers of Research Papers offer a list of reliable guides to writing in nonsexist language. The MLA Handbook, for example, gives its own clear guideline of what constitutes sexually discriminatory language and its reasonable alternative: Gendered Gender-free postman chairman landlord manmade poetess air hostess policeman maid postal agent chairperson landowner synthetic poet flight attendant police officer domestic For those who believe that language and culture are interrelated, that language embodies and disseminates cultural assumptions and relations of power, the first step toward transforming a biased society may be to transform the language itself.
Discuss with your classmate the last sentence of the text. What is y o u r attitude toward the idea of transforming the language itself? Think of how to improve the following sentences.
Each student will be given a diary for his use. The headmasters of all the city schools met to discuss the recent crisis.
All the doctors and their wives were invited to the event. The areas widely covered in the textbooks available in Ukraine such as, for example, verb tenses will not be considered here. Word order While in Ukrainian there is no strict word order, a normal English declarative sentence has the following structure, with the subject preceding the predicate: There are, however, additional rules.
Most important of them are given below. Adjectives are used before the noun that they modify in the following order: For example: A nice small brown French writing table. Old red Spanish home-made wine. Adverbs of frequency always, seldom, usually, often, frequently, rarely, occasionally, etc.
Adverbs of manner that answer the question "how? However, in academic style, the middle position is preferable. Adverbs and conjunctions referring to the whole sentence are placed at the beginning. In questions, we normally put an auxiliary verb before the subject. However, in indirect questions, the subject comes before the verb.
The word order may be inverted i. In some negative sentences clauses. In unreal conditionals. For emphasis. A singular noun, pronoun, or an uncountable noun is used with a singular verb. A plural noun or pronoun is used with a plural verb.
T h e water in t h e river is fresh a n d transparent. T h e stars shine brightly in t h e sky. After or or nor a verb agrees with the subject closest to it. The following singular expressions with plural nouns agree with plural verbs: A number of researchers f r o m U k r a i n e are taking p a r t in t h e conference.
The following nouns ending in -s agree with singular verbs: Measles is a serious disease.
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The following plural nouns agree with plural verbs: Note that the Ukrainian equivalents of these words are, vice versa, singular and agree with singular verbs. N u c l e a r arms are extremely dangerous. T h e outskirts of t h e city are dirty. Names of quantities thought of as one unit have singular verbs. Five miles is too m u c h to walk. Three weeks is a good holiday.
Table 4. A number of U. Critically he studied the article on transgenic food products. As the annual report of the Mesa Garden states, these cactuses grow exclusively in the northern parts of Mexico.
Either the journalist or the witness know the truth about this mysterious event. Elaborated will be in this paper the model of corrosive destruction of metals under lacquer-paint coatings. The teacher asked the students if they knew the health effects of insecticides.
The premises of the library is cleaned every day. Twenty dollars are not enough to download this book. Many mathematical symposiums are held in Europe every year. Bile acids contains significant amounts of cholesterol. This extremely interesting new Ukrainian historical novel has been favorably reviewed.
In no ease the work on the project will be terminated 52 English Academic Style and Language Articles English articles usually mystify Ukrainian learners even though this theme is widely taught. Below are the most basic rules of using articles that you should always observe. For more exhaustive explanations, consult additional literature. The Indefinite Article 1. The indefinite article a before a consonant sound or an before a vowel sound is used with countable nouns in the singular, meaning "member of a class of objects," "one of," "some.
She was a gifted researcher. An octopus has eight legs. It may be used with uncountable nouns to mean "a kind of," or w i t h kind of, or certain. This person has an integrity that we all appreciate. The pictures of British romantic painter Joseph Turner reveal a great love of the sea.
The Definite Article 1. Once the scanner is activated, it reads images as a series of dots. Do you see the men standing near the door? They are our new research assistants. In the so-called "of — phrases. The preliminary results of the investigation are promising. The is not used in generalizations with uncountable nouns. He is very interested in nature.
W h a t is the nature of this strange disease? People have to live in society. People have to observe the laws and norms of the society they live in. However, it is used in generalizations with singular countable nouns to refer to a class of things.
The computer has replaced the typewriter. The brain is a complex biological system. The is used with the superlative degrees of adjectives, ordinal numerals, and specifiers such as same, only, chief, principal, etc.
The best results were obtained during the second experiment. The only paper on this problem was published ten years ago. With the names of unique objects. The Universe is thought to contain 10'11 kilograms of matter. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. With the names of theories, effects, and devices modified by a proper name used as an adjective: Finstein's theory of relativity. Marx's "Capital. Fill in the blanks with missing articles for convenience, mark the absence of the article as 0.
Consult additional literature on the use of articles if necessary. A brain is clearly most complex biological system scientists can study. There are 50 billion cells, trillions of connections among these cells, several "neurotransmitters" small molecules that transmit messages among nerve cells , and genetic and hormonal controls for entire system.
Tackling this is more than lifetime occupation; it's work of many lifetimes, observes Stanley Watson, senior neuroscientist at University of Michigan. He suggests that science is likely to need another or years to completely understand how brain functions.
Watson recalls that one of early analogies used to describe brain was that of telephone switching center. In this view, brain was central receiver and distributor of messages from and to other parts of body. Data came in from senses or organ, brain "processed" this information, and response or instruction was sent to appropriate sites throughout body.
In some cultures, eating lavish and exotic meals is sign of wealth and power, whereas eating only basic foods is sign of belonging to more common class. In some cultures, offer of glass of cool clean water is greatest compliment or honor one can receive. In some cultures, whenever you receive guest, whether for pleasure or business, you must offer them something to eat or drink: Diet is not consideration.
In movie Indiana Johns and the Temple of Doom, there are two scenes in which two lead characters are offered meals from different culture. One meal, meant to break ice, consisted of insects. Once in Alaska, it would take these first North Americans thousands of years more to work their way through the openings in great glaciers south to what is now United States. By 3, B. Who refers to persons. Which refers to things.
That refers to b o t h persons a n d things. I am interested in t h e collaboration w i t h t h e scholars that investigate t h e spread of d e m o c r a c y in Eastern E u r o p e. Complete the sentences with suitable relative pronouns. The emancipation of was the process the Ukrainian peasantry political experience.
Give slowly gave 2. The reform in immigration opened the doors to Vietnamese refugees poured into the United States in the aftermath of the war. The great threat to human life can be El Nino affects the climate. Identifying clause: Non-identifying clause: M u c h o f t h e progress i n basic genetics i s d u e t o t h e a d v a n c e s o f m o l e c u l a r genetics, which in turn contributed to our understanding of the pathogenesis of disease.
In identifying clauses, we may leave out a relative pronoun when it is the object, e. H e m a i n t a i n s scholarly c o n t a c t s with the r e n o w n e d professor of H e m a i n t a i n s scholarly c o n t a c t s with the renowned professor of biochemistry whom he met at the previous Congress. Identifying clauses are frequently used in definitions.
Psychology is a branch of science which studies the mind and its processes. Identifying clauses may be reduced in the following cases. When the relative pronoun introducing the clause is followed by the verb to be. The relative pronoun and be can both be left out. W h e n the relative clause has the verb to have.
In this case, the relative p r o n o u n and have can be replaced by with. A tiger is a large, fierce animal f o u n d in Asia which has striped yellow and black skin. A tiger is a large, fierce animal f o u n d in Asia with striped yellow and black skin. W h e n the relative clause c o n t a i n s an active verb. T h e relative p r o n o u n is dropped and the verb is replaced by the -ing form. A planet is any of the non-luminous bodies that orbit the Sun.
A planet is any of the n o n - l u m i n o u s bodies orbiting the Sun. Edit the sentences by reducing the relative clause. An ankylosaurus is an armored dinosaur which has two large lobes of bone in a tail. Rain is a kind of precipitation that reaches the ground in liquid form. Tropical storms, which are known as typhoons in the Pacific and hurricanes in the Atlantic, claim more lives than any other storms. The discoveries of this scientist include the existence of a group of enzymes that play a significant role in the energy metabolism of all mammalians and most bacterial cells.
Many new word processors have been elaborated, which are capable of generating tables of numbers or figures, sophisticated indices, and comprehensive tables of contents.
A lung is either of the two breathing organs which are in the chest of humans or animals. Stress axis is a shorthand name for the powerful system which directs the body's response to some stressful event. Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often develop psychological problems. T h e following exercise will help you to develop the necessary attention toward spelling. How many words with the modified spelling will you be able to find in the humorous text below? Try to "restore " their traditional spelling.
M o r Gud N u z The European Union commissioners have announced that agreement has been reached to adopt English as the preferred language for European communications, rather than German, which was the other possibility. As part of the negotiations, Her Majesty's Government in London conceded that English spelling had some room for improvement and has accepted a five-year plan for what will be known as EuroEnglish Euro for short.
In the first year, "s" will be used instead of the soft "c. Also, the hard "c" will be replased with "k. There will be growing publik enthusiasm in the sekond year, when the troublesome "ph" will be replased by "f.
In the third year, publik akseptanse of the new spelling kan be expekted to reach the stage where more komplikated changes are possible. Governments will enkourage the removal of double letters, which have always been a deterent to akurate speling. Also, al wil agre that the horible mes of silent "e"s in the languag is disgrasful, and they would go. By the fourth year, peopl wil be reseptiv to steps such as replasing "th" by "z" and "w" by "v.
After zis fifz yer, ve vil hav a reli sensible riten styl. Zer vil be no mor trubls or difikultis and evrivun vil find it ezi tu understand ech ozer.
Ze drem vil finali kum tru. In academic writing, spelling should always be consistent, either American or British throughout. In some cases, however, alternatives exist, for example, judgement ox judgment, medieval ox mediaeval.
In case of alternatives, it is advisable to follow the appropriate rules suggested by publishers. Labeled, neighbour, center, insofar, fibre, modelling, colour, rumor, theater, favour, armor, favor, labelled, neighbor, theatre, in so far, fiber, armour, centre, modeling, rumour, color. American British Academic writing requires proofreading, that is reading over a finished paper, finding mistakes, and correcting them.
This process will be easier if you run a spell-check program while word-processing your texts. Such a program essentially helps to avoid spelling, grammar, and punctuation mistakes as well as misprints. But due to the existence of homophones words pronounced like other but different in meaning, spelling, or origin , the spell-checker may sometimes miss important things. The following sentence has been spell-checked. However, the program did not find any spelling errors.
Would you be able to detect the mistakes? Eye would rather sea a flour in a would than on sail beside the rode. Would not eve? Oar yew! In addition to the cases common in both languages e. The English rules of capitalization that differ from appropriate Ukrainian rules are as follows.
Capitalize the pronoun I but not me, my, myself, or mine. Capitalize the names of nationalities and appropriate adjectives.
Capitalize the adjectives formed from the names of continents. European e m i g r a n t s left their h o m e l a n d s to escape political oppression. Capitalize the definite article in The Hague. Capitalize the titles of books, plays, movies, music, but do not capitalize articles, conjunctions, or prepositions unless they are the first word of the title.
Capitalize the names of the deity, religions, religious bodies, and religious holidays. Capitalize historic names, events, and periods. Capitalize the names of institutions.
Capitalize north, south, east, a n d west and c o m p o u n d words made from t h e m w h e n they refer to specific regions or are part of a proper name. Do not capitalize north, south, east, and west and c o m p o u n d words made from them when they mean directions. T h e problems of t h e Middle East constantly attract the attention of political observers. T h e Southwest of the USA often has severe tornadoes. Belarus is worth of Ukraine and Turkey is. T h e b o o k stacks are along the worth wall of the library.
Capitalization of prefixes used with proper names is not consistent. Look in a dictionary to be sure when to use capital letters as well as hyphens. Peter mohyla arrived in kiev in Much to his dismay, he found the educational standards and approach at the bohojavlenske brotherhood school wanting.
Unhappy with the type of education offered, he, then a newly appointed archimandrite of the pecherska lavra, founded another school in the lavra in This school was modelled on the western jesuit schools that included latin and polish and aspired to operate at the collegial level. At first, the mohyla collegiate experienced a great deal of resistance from conservative clerical circles.
They saw this type of education as an innovation and latinization of the ruthenian greek Slavonic school.
In his spiritual testament of march 31, , metropolitan iov boretsky advised mohyla to establish his school "within the confines of the kiev brotherhood, not elsewhere. We will consider only the use of the marks with which you might be less familiar the apostrophe, the asterisk, the slash, the quotation marks as well as the comma— a source of major differences and difficulties. Apostrophe ' An apostrophe is used to show possession, ownership, or a relation similar to ownership.
Note the use of an apostrophe after plural nouns and nouns ending in -s. Quotation marks are always used in pairs. Quotation marks are used to set off the exact words of a speaker or to show material quoted from writing. They are put around the tides of works that are not published separately. A magazine article: Should I read this book?
If you are a teacher of English for Academic Purposes or English as a Foreign Language you will learn about all the typical problems that non-native researchers have in the world of academia. You will be able to give your students advice on writing effective emails and getting referees and editors to accept their papers and lots of tips on how to network at conferences.
How is this book organized? The book is divided into seven parts—see the Contents on page xi. The Contents page also acts as a summary of each chapter. Each chapter begins with a very quick summary of its importance. This is followed either by advice from experts in writing and communication or by interesting fac- toids.
A typical chapter then proceeds with a series of important issues to focus on when you are carrying out a particular task e. Preface vii Are the emails and other examples in this book genuine? Are they in correct English?Do you see the men standing near the door?
The relative pronoun and be can both be left out. The database covers some , books and provides excerpts from and citations to reviews of adult and juvenile fiction and non-fiction. The word order may be inverted i.
At the same time, there is a tendency now to use an I-perspective in English academic writing, mostly in humanities. These three patterns do n o t embrace all possible ways of citing.
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