C IWA Publishing. Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions by Marcos von. Sperling and Carlos Augusto de Lemos Chernicharo. Author(s): Marcos Von Sperling · Matthew E. Verbyla · Sílvia M. A. C. This title is available as a free ebook PDF only. Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm. Von Sperling. October 5, | Author: Hugo Farias | Category: Water Cycle, Water, DOWNLOAD PDF - MB. Share Embed Donate. Report this link.
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Sperling Cap 1 2 greentinphalihang.tk - Download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides Von Sperling - Introdução à Qualidade Das Águas e Ao Tratamento de. Introdução à qualidade das águas e ao tratamento de esgotos: princípios do tratamento biológico de águas residuárias. M von SPERLING. Belo Horizonte. Book ID: R2n9UKsoiF6Zm4b | [Book] Free Marcos Von Sperling [Pdf] Download. Introduo qualidade das guas e ao tratamento de, marcos von sperling iwa.
Dados de entrada do exemplo. Hsgolo bruto. O perfil de OD pode ser visualizado na Figura 1. Esgolo brulo 1.
O Item 5. O Quadro 2. Exemplo 2. Eventuais mortandades de peixes. Toxicidade das algas.
Desaparecimento gradual do lago como um toclo. Quadro 3.
A camada superior, subitamente resfriada, tende a ir para o fundo do lago, deslocando a camada inferior, e causando um completo revolvimento do lago.
A Figura 3. A drenagem urbana apresenta valores mais elevados e com menor variabilidade.
O Quadro 3. O valor obtido foi: Segundo o Quadro 3. Von Spetling a , Barros et al 3. Com base no Quadro 3. Porque a DBO? Porque apenas a DBO?
Para tanto, devem ser bem caracterizados os seguintes aspectos: Ni11'iv , processos e sistemas de tratamento Quadro 2. Os fluxogramas dos sistemas descritos neste quadro encontram-se apresentados na Figura 2.
Entre QS gases formados inclui-se o metano. A Figura 2. Uma grande variedade de microrganismos toma parte no processo: O esgoto afluente entra em uma extremidade da lagoa e sai na extremidade oposta. A lagoa se comporta, portanto, como uma lagoa facultativa convencional ver Figura 2. No PMtimto, os aspectos relativos ao manuseio do lodo podem ser mais complicados,.
O lodo excedente deve sofrer tratamento adicional, na linha de tratamento do lodo. O processo consiste de um reator de mistura completa onde ocorrem todas as etapas do tratamento.
Em termos de consumo de energia, os filtros apresentam um consumo bastante inferior ao dos lodos ativados. Com a p. O fluxograma do sistema f apresentado na Figura 2.
The ecosystem is now stable and the community reaches its climax again. The impact is extended to all the aquatic community, and each reduction in the level of the dissolved oxygen is selective for certain species.
Impact of wastewater discharges to water bodies 83 Figure 3. Schematic prole of the concentration of the organic matter, bacteria and dissolved oxygen along the length of the water course, with the indication of the self-purication zones Dissolved oxygen has been traditionally used for the determination of the degree of pollution and self purication in water bodies.
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Its measurement is simple and its level can be expressed in quantiable concentrations, allowing mathematical modelling. Water is an environment poor of oxygen, by virtue of its low solubility.
In this way, any large consumption brings substantial impacts in the DO level in the liquid mass. Main interacting mechanisms in the DO balance Oxygen consumption Oxygen production oxidation of the organic matter respiration atmospheric reaeration benthic demand sludge at the bottom photosynthesis nitrication ammonia oxidation Figure 3.
Interacting mechanisms in the dissolved oxygen balance In the self-purication process there is a balance between the sources of con- sumption and the sources of production of oxygen.
When the consumption rate is higher than the production rate, the oxygen concentration tends to decrease, the opposite occurring when the consumption rate is lower than the production rate. The main interacting mechanisms in the DO balance in a water body can be found in Figure 3. In general, the concentrations of the constituents such as DO in a water body change as a result of physical processes of advec- tion transportation by the water as it ows in the river channel and dispersion transportation due to turbulence and molecular diffusion and biochemical and physical processes of conversion reaction Fig.
The processes take place in the three dimensions of the water body, although in rivers the longitudinal axis X is the prevailing one.
The mechanisms listed in Table 3.
Axes along which spatial and temporal variations of the concentrations of the water constituents take place in rivers, the X axis is predominant Oxygen consumption a Oxidation of the organic matter The organic matter in sewage is present in two forms: suspended particulate and dissolved soluble. Settleable suspended solids tend to settle in the water body, forming a sludge layer at the bottom.
The dissolved matter, together with the suspended solids of small dimensions hardly settleable remains in the liquid mass. The oxidation of the latter fraction of organic matter corresponds to the main factor in the oxygen consumption. The consumption of DO is due to the respi- ration of the microorganisms responsible for the oxidation, principally aerobic heterotrophic bacteria.
As a result, bacteria tend to grow and reproduce, generating more bacteria, while there is availability of food organic matter and oxygen in the medium. A large part of the conversion is completed under anaerobic conditions, because of the difculty of oxygen to penetrate the sludge layer. This form of conversion, being anaerobic, implies the non- consumption of oxygen.
Marcos Von Sperling - Principios de Tratamiento Biológico de Aguas Residuales, Vol. 1. Cap. 3
However, the upper part of the sludge layer, in the order of some millimetres of thickness, still has access to oxygen from the supernatant water. The sludge stabilisation is completed under aerobic conditions in this ne layer, resulting in the consumption of oxygen. Besides, some partial by-products of the anaerobic decomposition may dissolve, cross the aerobic sludge layer and diffuse itself in 86 Wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal the bulk of the liquid, exerting an oxygen demand.
The oxygen demand originat- ing from these combined factors associated with the sludge is called benthic or sediment demand. Another factor that can cause oxygen demand is the reintroduction of previously settled organic matter into the bulk of the liquid, caused by the resuspension of the sludge layer. This resuspension occurs in occasions of high ows and velocities in the water course.
The sludge, not yet completely stabilised, represents a new source of oxygen demand.
The importance of the benthic demand and the resuspension of the sludge in the dissolved oxygen balance depends on a series of simultaneously interacting factors, many of them difcult to quantify. The microorganisms involved in this process are chemoautotrophs, which have carbon dioxide as the main carbon source and which draw their energy from the oxidation of an inorganic substrate, such as ammonia. This consumption is referred to as nitrogenous demand or second-stage demand, because it takes place after the oxidation of most of the carbonaceous matter.
This is due to the fact that the nitrifying bacteria have a slower growth rate compared with the heterotrophic bacteria, implying that nitrication also occurs at a slower rate.There is the re-establishment of the normal food web.
This is what happens in a water body, in which the DO concentration is reduced due to the processes of the stabilisation of the organic matter. Dias, B. The majority of the included studies reported on patients with acute LBP less than 6 weeks' duration or on mixed populations. The age of the patients, where reported, ranged from 14 to 73 years. The diffusion condition to prevail is a function of the hydrodynamic character- istics of the water body.
Rios, E. The experimental design of the CWs aimed primarily at the evaluation of different arrenge- ments within this own system, and was based on Reed et al.