Henry F. Korth All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered Database system concepts / Abraham Silberschatz. — 6th ed. p. cm. ISBN (alk. paper). 1. Database management. instructor's manual which will aid all of the users of our book as A database management system is designed to allow flexible access to data. Click on the links below to download the slides in the format of your choice: Powerpoint and PDF. Copyright Note. The slides and figures below are copyright Silberschatz, Korth. may be sold strictly at the price of reproduction, to students of courses where the book is the prescribed text. Part 5: Transaction Management.
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We also provide zip files of the all Powerpoint files, PDF files, and all figures used in the text. Copyright Note. The slides and figures below are copyright Silberschatz, Korth. slides may be sold strictly at the price of reproduction, to students of courses where the book is the prescribed text. Part 4: Transaction Management. ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan. See greentinphalihang.tk for conditions on re -use. Chapter 1: DBMS contains information about a particular enterprise. Edited by Foxit PDF Editor Silberschatz−Korth−Sudarshan • Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition. Front Matter. 1. Preface. 1. 1. Preface. Database management has evolved from a specialized computer application to a The fundamental concepts and algorithms covered in the book are often based on those.
The overall process of database design is also described in detail. Chapter 8 covers object-oriented databases. It introduces the concepts of object-oriented pro- gramming, and shows how these concepts form the basis for a data model. No prior knowledge of object-oriented languages is assumed. Chapter 9 cov- ers object-relational databases, and shows how the SQL: The chapter also describes query languages for XML. Chap- ters 13 and 14 address query-evaluation algorithms, and query optimization based on equivalence-preserving query transformations.
These chapters provide an understanding of the internals of the storage and retrieval components of a database. Chapter 15 focuses on the fundamentals of a transaction-processing system, including transaction atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability, as well as the notion of serial- izability. Chapter 16 focuses on concurrency control and presents several techniques for ensuring serializability, including locking, timestamping, and optimistic validation techniques.
The chapter also covers deadlock issues. Chapter 17 covers the primary techniques for ensuring correct transaction execution de- spite system crashes and disk failures. These techniques include logs, shadow pages, checkpoints, and database dumps. We discuss centralized systems, client — server systems, parallel and distributed architectures, and network types in this chapter. Chapter 19 covers distributed database systems, revis- iting the issues of database design, transaction management, and query eval- uation and optimization, in the context of distributed databases.
The chap- ter also covers issues of system availability during failures and describes the LDAP directory system. The chapter also describes parallel-system design. Chapter 21 covers database appli- cation development and administration. Topics include database interfaces, particularly Web interfaces, performance tuning, performance benchmarks, standardization, and database issues in e-commerce.
Chapter 22 covers query- ing techniques, including decision support systems, and information retrieval. The chapter also describes information retrieval techniques for 8.
Chapter 23 covers advanced data types and new applications, including temporal data, spatial and geographic data, multimedia data, and issues in the management of mobile and personal databases. Finally, Chapter 24 deals with advanced transaction processing. These chapters outline unique features of each of these products, and describe their internal structure.
Database System Concepts, 6th Edition
They provide a wealth of in- teresting information about the respective products, and help you see how the various implementation techniques described in earlier parts are used in real systems. They also cover several interesting practical aspects in the design of real systems.
Although most new database applications use either the relational model or the object-oriented model, the network and hierarchical data models are still in use. Appendix C describes advanced relational database design, including the theory of multivalued dependencies, join dependencies, and the project-join and domain-key normal forms. This appendix, too, is available only online, on the Web page of the book. The Fourth Edition The production of this fourth edition has been guided by the many comments and suggestions we received concerning the earlier editions, by our own observations while teaching at IIT Bombay, and by our analysis of the directions in which database technology is evolving.
Each chapter now has a list of review terms, which can help you review key topics covered in the chapter. We have also added a tools section at the end of most chap- ters, which provide information on software tools related to the topic of the chapter.
We have also added new exercises, and updated references. We have improved our coverage of the entity- relationship E-R model.
More examples have been added, and some changed, to give better intuition to the reader.
Coverage of Quel has been dropped from Chapter 5, since it is no longer in wide use. Chapter 6 now covers integrity constraints and security. Coverage of se- curity has been moved to Chapter 6 from its third-edition position of Chap- ter Chapter 6 also covers triggers. Chapter 7 covers relational-database design and normal forms.
Discussion of functional dependencies has been moved into Chapter 7 from its third-edition position of Chapter 6. Object-relational coverage in Chapter 9 has been updated, and in particular the SQL: Chapter 10, covering XML, is a new chapter in the fourth edition. Many characteristics of disk drives and other storage mecha- nisms have changed greatly in the past few years, and our coverage has been correspondingly updated. Coverage of data dictionaries catalogs has been extended.
Chapter 12, on indexing, now includes coverage of bitmap indices; this chapter was Chapter 11 in the third edition. Our treatment of query processing has been reorganized, with the earlier chapter Chapter 12 in the third edition split into two chapters, one on query processing Chapter 13 and another on query optimization Chapter All details regarding cost estimation and query optimization have been moved Chapter 14 now has pseudocode for optimization algorithms, and new sections on opti- mization of nested subqueries and on materialized views.
Chapter 15, which provides an introduction to trans- actions, has been updated; this chapter was numbered Chapter 13 in the third edition. Tests for view serializability have been dropped. Chapter 16, on concurrency control, includes a new section on implemen- tation of lock managers, and a section on weak levels of consistency, which was in Chapter 20 of the third edition. Concurrency control of index structures has been expanded, providing details of the crabbing protocol, which is a sim- pler alternative to the B-link protocol, and next-key locking to avoid the phan- tom problem.
As in the third edition, instructors can choose between just introducing transaction-processing concepts by covering only Chapter 15 , or offering de- tailed coverage based on Chapters 15 through Chapter 18, which provides an overview of database system architectures, has been updated to cover current technology; this was Chapter 16 in the third edition.
While the cov- erage of parallel database query processing techniques in Chapter 20 which was Chapter 16 in the third edition is mainly of interest to those who wish to learn about database internals, distributed databases, now covered in Chapter 19, is a topic that is more fundamental; it is one that anyone dealing with databases should be familiar with. Coverage of three-phase commit protocol has been ab- breviated, as has distributed detection of global deadlocks, since neither is used much in practice.
Coverage of query processing issues in heterogeneous databases has been moved up from Chapter 20 of the third edition. There is a new section on directory systems, in particular LDAP, since these are quite widely used as a mechanism for making information available in a distributed setting. The description of how to build Web interfaces to databases, including servlets and other mechanisms for server-side scripting, is new.
The section on performance tuning, which was earlier in Chapter 19, has new material on the famous 5-minute rule and the 1-minute rule, as well as some new examples. Coverage of materialized view selection is also new. Coverage of benchmarks and standards has been updated. There is a new sec- tion on e-commerce, focusing on database issues in e-commerce, and a new section on dealing with legacy systems. Coverage of data warehousing and data mining has also been ex- tended greatly.
Earlier versions of this ma- terial were in Chapter 21 of the third edition. Chapter 23, which covers advanced data types and new applications, has material on temporal data, spatial data, multimedia data, and mobile data- bases. This material is an updated version of material that was in Chapter 21 of the third edition.
These sections may be omitted if so desired, without a loss of continuity. It is possible to design courses by using various subsets of the chapters.
We outline some of the possibilities here: Alternatively, they could constitute the foundation of an advanced course in object databases. You might choose to use Chapters 15 and 18, while omitting Chapters 16, 17, 19, and 20, if you defer these latter chapters to an advanced course. Model course syllabi, based on the text, can be found on the Web home page of the book see the following section. For more infor- mation about how to get a copy of the solution manual, please send electronic mail to customer.
In the United States, you may call The McGraw-Hill Web page for this book is http: If you wish to be on the list, please send a message to db-book research. We have endeavored to eliminate typos, bugs, and the like from the text.
We would appreciate it if you would notify us of any errors or omissions in the book that are not on the current list of errata. We would be glad to receive suggestions on improvements to the books. We also welcome any contributions to the book Web page that could be of use to other read- E-mail should be addressed to db-book research. In addition, many people have written or spoken to us about the book, and have offered suggestions and comments.
Although we cannot mention all these people here, we especially thank the following: Sarda, and Dilys Thomas, for extensive and invaluable feedback on several chapters of the book. The publisher was Betsy Jones. The senior developmental editor was Kelley Butcher. The project manager was Jill Peter. The executive marketing manager was John Wannemacher. The freelance copyeditor was George Watson. The free- lance proofreader was Marie Zartman.
The supplement producer was Jodi Banowetz. The designer was Rick Noel.
The freelance indexer was Tobiah Waldron. Greg Speegle, Dawn Bezviner, and K. The idea of using ships as part of the cover concept was originally suggested to us by Bruce Stephan. Finally, Sudarshan would like to acknowledge his wife, Sita, for her love and sup- port, two-year old son Madhur for his love, and mother, Indira, for her support.
Hank would like to acknowledge his wife, Joan, and his children, Abby and Joe, for their love and understanding. Avi would like to acknowledge his wife Haya, and his son, Aaron, for their patience and support during the revision of this book.
The collection of data, usually referred to as the database, contains information relevant to an enterprise. Database systems are designed to manage large bodies of information.
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In addition, the database system must ensure the safety of the information stored, despite system crashes or attempts at unauthorized access. If data are to be shared among several users, the system must avoid possible anomalous results. Because information is so important in most organizations, computer scientists have developed a large body of concepts and techniques for managing data.
These concepts and technique form the focus of this book. Here are some representative applications: For customer information, accounts, and loans, and banking transac- tions.
For reservations and schedule information. For student information, course registrations, and grades. For downloads on credit cards and generation of month- ly statements.
For keeping records of calls made, generating monthly bills, maintaining balances on prepaid calling cards, and storing information about the communication networks. For customer, product, and download information.
As the list illustrates, databases form an essential part of almost all enterprises today. Over the course of the last four decades of the twentieth century, use of databases grew in all enterprises. In the early days, very few people interacted directly with database systems, although without realizing it they interacted with databases in- directly — through printed reports such as credit card statements, or through agents such as bank tellers and airline reservation agents.
Then automated teller machines came along and let users interact directly with databases. The internet revolution of the late s sharply increased direct user access to databases. Organizations converted many of their phone interfaces to databases into Web interfaces, and made a variety of services and information available online. For instance, when you access an online bookstore and browse a book or music collec- tion, you are accessing data stored in a database.
When you enter an order online, your order is stored in a database. When you access a Web site, information about you may be retrieved from a database, to select which advertisements should be shown to you.
Furthermore, data about your Web accesses may be stored in a database. New application programs are added to the system as the need arises. For exam- ple, suppose that the savings bank decides to offer checking accounts.
Before database management systems DBMSs came along, organizations usu- ally stored information in such systems. This redundancy leads to higher storage and access cost. In addition, it may lead to data inconsis- tency; that is, the various copies of the same data may no longer agree.
Because the designers of the original system did not anticipate this request, there is no application program on hand to meet it. There is, however, an ap- plication program to generate the list of all customers. Both alternatives are obviously unsatisfactory. As expected, a program to generate such a list does not exist. More responsive data-retrieval systems are required for general use.
The data values stored in the database must satisfy cer- tain types of consistency constraints. Developers enforce these constraints in the system by adding appropriate code in the various ap- plication programs. A computer system, like any other mechanical or elec- trical device, is subject to failure. In many applications, it is crucial that, if a failure occurs, the data be restored to the consistent state that existed prior to the failure.
Clearly, it is essential to database consistency that either both the credit and debit occur, or that neither occur. That is, the funds transfer must be atomic — it must happen in its entirety or not at all.
For the sake of overall performance of the sys- tem and faster response, many systems allow multiple users to update the data simultaneously. In such an environment, interaction of concurrent up- dates may result in inconsistent data.
Suppose that the pro- grams executing on behalf of each withdrawal read the old balance, reduce that value by the amount being withdrawn, and write the result back. Depending on which one writes the value To guard against this possibility, the system must maintain some form of supervision. Not every user of the database system should be able to access all the data. For example, in a banking system, payroll personnel need to see only that part of the database that has information about the various bank employees.
They do not need access to information about customer ac- counts. In most of this book, we use a bank enterprise as a running example of a typical data-processing application found in a corporation. A major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the data. That is, the system hides certain details of how the data are stored and maintained.
The lowest level of abstraction describes how the data are actu- ally stored. The physical level describes complex low-level data structures in detail.
The next-higher level of abstraction describes what data are stored in the database, and what relationships exist among those data. The logical level thus describes the entire database in terms of a small number of relatively simple structures.
Although implementation of the simple struc- tures at the logical level may involve complex physical-level structures, the user of the logical level does not need to be aware of this complexity. Database administrators, who must decide what information to keep in the database, use the logical level of abstraction.
Database System Concepts, 5th Ed.
The highest level of abstraction describes only part of the entire database. Even though the logical level uses simpler structures, complexity remains because of the variety of information stored in a large database. Many users of the database system do not need all this information; instead, they need to access only a part of the database.
The view level of abstraction exists to simplify their interaction with the system. The system may provide many views for the same database. Figure 1. An analogy to the concept of data types in programming languages may clarify the distinction among levels of abstraction. Most high-level programming languages support the notion of a record type. For example, in a Pascal-like language, we may declare a record as follows: The language view level view 1 view 2 … view n logical level physical level Figure 1.
Similarly, the database system hides many of the lowest-level storage details from database programmers. Database administrators, on the other hand, may be aware of certain details of the physical organization of the data. Programmers using a programming language work at this level of abstraction. Similarly, database administrators usually work at this level of abstraction. Finally, at the view level, computer users see a set of application programs that hide details of the data types.
In addition to hiding details of the logical level of the database, the views also provide a security mechanism to prevent users from accessing certain parts of the database. For example, tellers in a bank see only that part of the database that has information on customer accounts; they cannot access information about salaries of employees.
The collection of information stored in the database at a particular moment is called an instance of the database. The overall design of the database is called the database schema.
Schemas are changed infrequently, if at all. The concept of database schemas and instances can be understood by analogy to a program written in a programming language. Each variable has a particular value at a given instant. The values of the variables in a program at a point in time correspond to an instance of a database schema. Chapter 14 focuses on the fundamentals of a transaction-processing system: atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability.
It provides an overview of the methods used to ensure these properties, including locking and snapshot isolation. Chapter 15 focuses on concurrency control and presents several techniques for ensuring serializability, including locking, timestamping, and optimistic validation techniques. The chapter also covers deadlock issues. Alternatives to serializability are covered, most notably the widely-used snapshot isolation, which is discussed in detail. Chapter 16 covers the primary techniques for ensuring correct transaction execution despite system crashes and storage failures.
These techniques include logs, checkpoints, and database dumps. Chapter 17 covers Apago PDF Enhancer computer-system architecture, and describes the influence of the underlying computer system on the database system. We discuss centralized systems, client—server systems, and parallel and distributed architectures in this chapter. The chapter also describes parallel-system design. Chapter 19 covers distributed database systems, revisiting the issues of database design, transaction management, and query evaluation and optimization, in the context of distributed databases.
The chapter also covers issues of system availability during failures, heterogeneous distributed databases, cloud-based databases, and distributed directory systems. Chapter 20 introduces the concepts of data warehousing and data mining.
Chapter 21 describes information-retrieval techniques for querying textual data, including hyperlink-based techniques used in Web search engines. Part 6 uses the modeling and language concepts from Parts 1 and 2, but does not depend on Parts 3, 4, or 5.
It can therefore be incorporated easily into a course that focuses on SQL and on database design. Chapter 22 covers objectbased databases.
The chapter describes the object-relational data model, which extends the relational data model to support complex data types, type inheritance, and object identity. The chapter also describes database access from object-oriented programming languages. Chapter 23 covers the XML standard for data representation, which is seeing increasing use in the exchange and storage of complex data.
The chapter also describes query languages for XML. Chapter 24 covers advanced issues in application development, including performance tuning, performance benchmarks, database-application testing, and standardization. Chapter 25 covers spatial and geographic data, temporal data, multimedia data, and issues in the management of mobile and personal databases.
Finally, Chapter 26 deals with advanced transaction processing. Topics covered in the chapter include transaction-processing monitors, transactional workflows, electronic commerce, high-performance transaction systems, real-time transaction systems, and long-duration transactions.
These chapters outline unique features of each of these systems, and describe their internal structure. They provide a wealth of interesting information about the respective products, and help you see how the various implementation techniques described in earlier parts are used in real systems.
They also cover several interesting practical aspects in the design of real systems. An exception is Appendix A, which presents details of our university schema including the full schema, DDL, and all the tables. This appendix appears in the actual text. Appendix C describes advanced relational database design, including the theory of multivalued dependencies, join dependencies, and the project-join and domain-key normal forms.
This appendix is for the benefit of individuals who wish to study the theory of relational database design in more detail, and instructors who wish to do so in their courses.
This appendix, too, is available only online, on the Web site of the book. Although most new database applications use either the relational model or the object-relational model, the network and hierarchical data models are still in use in some legacy applications. For the benefit of readers who wish to learn about these data models, we provide appendices describing the network and hierarchical data models, in Appendices D and E respectively. Preface xix The Sixth Edition The production of this sixth edition has been guided by the many comments and suggestions we received concerning the earlier editions, by our own observations while teaching at Yale University, Lehigh University, and IIT Bombay, and by our analysis of the directions in which database technology is evolving.
We have replaced the earlier running example of bank enterprise with a university example. This example has an immediate intuitive connection to students that assists not only in remembering the example, but, more importantly, in gaining deeper insight into the various design decisions that need to be made.
We have reorganized the book so as to collect all of our SQL coverage together and place it early in the book. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 present complete SQL coverage. Chapter 3 presents the basics of the language, with more advanced features in Chapter 4.
We present triggers and recursion, and then conclude with coverage of online analytic processing OLAP. Introductory courses may choose to cover only certain sections of Chapter 5 or defer sections until after the coverage of database design without loss of continuity.
Beyond these two major changes, we revised the material in each chapter, bringing the older material up-to-date, adding discussions on recent developments in database technology, and improving descriptions of topics that students found difficult to understand.
We have also added new exercises and updated references. Many instructors use SQL as a key component of term projects see our Web site, www. In order to give students ample time for the projects, particularly for universities and colleges on the quarter system, it is essential to teach SQL as early as possible. These chapters also discuss variants supported by different database systems, to minimize problems that students face when they execute queries on actual database systems.
Only our discussion of query optimization in Chapter 13 depends on the relational algebra coverage of Chapter 6. We adopted a new schema, which is based on university data, as a running example throughout the book. This schema is more intuitive and motivating for students than the earlier bank schema, and illustrates more complex design trade-offs in the database-design chapters. To facilitate following our running example, we list the database schema and the sample relation instances for our university database together in Appendix A as well as where they are used in the various regular chapters.
This encourages students to run example queries directly on a database system and to experiment with modifying those queries. The chapter also makes good use of the new university database schema to illustrate more complex design trade-offs. Chapter 8 now has a more readable style, providing an intuitive understanding of functional dependencies and normalization, before covering functional dependency theory; the theory is motivated much better as a result.
Chapter 10 has been updated with new technology, including expanded coverage of flash memory. Chapter 13 has new material on advanced query-optimization techniques.
Chapter 14 provides full coverage of the basics for an introductory course, with advanced details following in Chapters 15 and Chapter 14 has been expanded to cover the practical issues in transaction management faced by database users and databaseapplication developers.
The chapter also includes an expanded overview of topics covered in Chapters 15 and 16, ensuring that even if Chapters 15 and 16 are omitted, students have a basic knowledge of the concepts of concurrency control and recovery. Preface xxi Chapters 14 and 15 now include detailed coverage of snapshot isolation, which is widely supported and used today, including coverage of potential hazards when using it.
Chapter 16 now has a simplified description of basic log-based recovery leading up to coverage of the ARIES algorithm. We now cover cloud data storage, which is gaining significant interest for business applications. Cloud storage offers enterprises opportunities for improved costmanagement and increased storage scalability, particularly for Web-based applications. We examine those advantages along with the potential drawbacks and risks. Multidatabases, which were earlier in the advanced transaction processing chapter, are now covered earlier as part of the distributed database chapter.
Although object-oriented languages and XML are widely used outside of databases, their use in databases is still limited, making them appropriate for more advanced courses, or as supplementary material for an introductory course.
These topics have therefore been moved to later in the book, in Chapters 22 and Apago PDF Enhancer All topics not listed above are updated from the fifth edition, though their overall organization is relatively unchanged. Review Material and Exercises Each chapter has a list of review terms, in addition to a summary, which can help readers review key topics covered in the chapter.
The exercises are divided into two sets: practice exercises and exercises. The solutions for the practice exercises are publicly available on the Web site of the book. Students are encouraged to solve the practice exercises on their own, and later use the solutions on the Web site to check their own solutions. Many chapters have a tools section at the end of the chapter that provides information on software tools related to the topic of the chapter; some of these tools can be used for laboratory exercises.
SQL DDL and sample data for the university database and other relations used in the exercises are available on the Web site of the book, and can be used for laboratory exercises. These sections may be omitted if so desired, without a loss of continuity. It is possible to design courses by using various subsets of the chapters.
Some of the chapters can also be covered in an order different from their order in the book. We expect most courses will cover at least Section 5.
Alternatively, this chapter may be omitted from an introductory course. We recommend covering Section 6. However, Sections 6. You might choose to use Chapters 14 and 17, while omitting Chapters 15, 16, 18 and 19, if you defer these latter chapters to an advanced course. Alternatively, they can be used as an illustration of concepts when the earlier chapters are presented in class. Model course syllabi, based on the text, can be found on the Web site of the book.
Answers to the practice exercises. The five appendices. An up-to-date errata list. Laboratory material, including SQL DDL and sample data for the university schema and other relations used in exercises, and instructions for setting up and using various database systems and tools.
We would appreciate it if you would notify us of any errors or omissions in the book that are not on the current list of errata. We would be glad to receive suggestions on improvements to the book. We also welcome any contributions to the book Web site that could be of use to other readers, such as programming exercises, project suggestions, online labs and tutorials, and teaching tips.
Acknowledgments Many people have helped us with this sixth edition, as well as with the previous five editions from which it is derived.
Sarda for feedback that helped us improve several chapters, in particular Chapter 11; Vikram Pudi for motivating us to replace the earlier bank schema; and Shetal Shah for feedback on several chapters. Lu, Alex N. Napitupulu, H. Kaplan, Graham J. The developmental editor was Melinda D. The project manager was Melissa Leick. The marketing manager was xxvi Preface Curt Reynolds. The production supervisor was Laura Fuller.
The book designer was Brenda Rolwes. The cover designer was Studio Montage, St. Louis, Missouri. The copyeditor was George Watson. The proofreader was Kevin Campbell.
The freelance indexer was Tobiah Waldron. The Aptara team consisted of Raman Arora and Sudeshna Nandy Personal Notes Sudarshan would like to acknowledge his wife, Sita, for her love and support, and children Madhur and Advaith for their love and joie de vivre.
Hank would like to acknowledge his wife, Joan, and his children, Abby and Joe, for their love and understanding. Avi would like to acknowledge Valerie for her love, patience, and support during the revision of this book. The collection of data, usually referred to as the database, contains information relevant to an enterprise. The primary goal of a DBMS is to provide a way to store and retrieve database information that is both convenient and efficient.
Database systems are designed to manage large bodies of information. Management of data involves both defining structures for storage of information and providing mechanisms for the manipulation of information. In addition, the database system must ensure the safety of the information stored, despite system crashes or attempts at unauthorized access.
If data are to be shared among several users, the system must avoid possible anomalous results.Examples in a banking system are programs that generate payroll checks, debit accounts, credit accounts, or transfer funds between accounts. Introduction Database System Concepts, 5th Ed. End of Chapter 1 Database System Concepts.
Storage and File Structure Model course syllabi, based on the text, can be found on the Web site of the book. The clerk asks the data-processing department to generate such a list.
These concepts and technique form the focus of this book.
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